Nutrients & Chronic Disease

A wide variety of nutrients have been associated with a variety of diseases or health states, often with varying degrees of association.

Disease State Protective Effect Increased Incidence
Cancer Carotenes

Vitamins C, D & E

n-3 fatty acids

High intakes of fruits/vegetables

Low vitamin A and folate intakes

High total fat intake

Low fibre intake

Cardiovascular Disease Vitamins C, D & E

High dietary fibre intakes

Low intakes of saturated fats

Higher intakes of mono- and poly-unsaturated fats

Low folate intakes

High sodium intakes

High magnesium intakes

High iron intakes

Immunocompetence Glutamine

n-3 fatty acids


Zinc, copper, iron and selenium deficiencies

Vitamin A, B6, C & E deficiencies

Osteoporosis High calcium intake

Magnesium, flouride, and vitamin C and D intakes

Low calcium intakes

High sodium and protein intakes

Anaemia Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency

Copper deficiency

Cataract/Macular Degeneration Antioxidants
Diabetes Chromium

Fibre, complex carbohydrate

Resistant starch

Monounsaturated fats

Low vitamin E
Bowel Health n-3 fatty acids


High intakes of fat & total protein